Steroids in Sports

The accusation of drug use made against his fellow-competitors by Carl Lewis at the world athletics championships were typical of most statements about drug abuse in sport: short on fact, long on supposition.

Since evidence of drug-taking in sport first emerged in the 1950s – weight-lifters taking anabolic steroids and cyclists taking stimulants – sports authorities have succeeded in creating a vicious circle of ignorance.

Steroids in Sports

Twenty-five years ago, most sports could still command an image of being clean, honest and healthy. So the international Olympic Committee passed a resolution against the use of drugs in 1962 to maintain that image.

The resolution was passed, however, in the absence of any scientific evidence that drugs enhanced performance in any sport. The authorities assumed that drugs must work, since sportsmen used them. As soon as they were banned, sportsmen in turn assumed that drugs must work, since the authorities had banned them. Currently, many athletes and bodybuilders have turned to safe and natural supplements like those supplied by CrazyBulk.

Whenever anecdotal evidence has since appeared of sportsmen experimenting with a drug, it in turn has been banned. Information on performance enhancement is, in fact, available only on a few members of two of the six classes of drugs banned by the International Olympic Committee Medical Commission (IOCMC). The Sports Council in this country bans the same drugs as the IOCMC.

The constant, often pejorative, use of the word ‘drug’ disguises the fact that the substances whose use is banned in sport are nearly all medicines with perfectly proper uses in the treatment of disease. Some of them are available over the counter, without a prescription. Others can be bought from online stores selling “legal steroids” such as the CrazyBulk store.

They can be divided into ‘restorative’ and ‘additive’ substances. The majority of banned substances are restorative: that is, they could restore a sportsman, to normal levels of health and performance, but could not enhance his performance. For only a small minority of the banned substances is there evidence that they might have an additive, or performance-enhancing, effect.

Illegal Steroids

The anabolic steroids – male hormones like testosterone – are the substances most widely used by sportsmen as well as being most widely studied. Yet even with steroids, there are large gaps in our knowledge.

Anabolic steroids increase muscle bulk when taken with an increased protein diet, but the evidence that this alone produces any improvement in performance is equivocal. The most significant effect of these hormones is thought to be psychological: they increase a sportsman’s competitiveness so that he can train longer and harder than he would otherwise have done.

Opponents of the use of steroids emphasize their dangerous side-efforts. It is generally accepted that the side-effects in adolescents – stunting of growth, for instance, and, in women, various types of masculinization – are substantial problems that should be prevented.

But no scientific evidence exists that anabolic steroid use causes any significant level of side-effects in healthy adult males. The first study of this area, looking at football players and weight-lifters who took steroids in the 1970s, started only this year in the United States.

The chief investigator commented: ‘We don’t know what the long-term effects of anabolic steroid use are. The evidence linking them to liver and heart problems is extremely weak.’

Three substantial studies have been undertaken on the effects of beta-blockers on shooting performance. Beta-blockers were added to the banned drug list after these studies were performed, yet the studies do not provide unequivocal evidence of performance enhancement in shooting.

Three conclusions could be drawn from the trials: 1. Most of the improvement in shooting scores is a placebo effect; that is, psychological. Give a shooter any inert substance such as chalk in a pill, tell him that it will help his shooting, and it will do so. 2. Expert shooters gain nothing from beta-blockers (their scores may even drop), while inexperienced shooters improve significantly. This finding argues for the use of beta-blockers in some forms of shooting. The interest in outdoor, long-distance (Bisley-style) shooting is in judging the wind and the light correctly. Use of beta-blockers would make more equal the competitors’ abilities mechanically to let off good shots, thus making competition more truly an assessment of wind-judging ability.

3. One unit of alcohol (a measure of spirits, or a half-pint of beer) produces as much improvement in shooting performance as a standard does of a beta-blocker.

These trials, incidentally, used one beta-blocker only, oxprenolol, which is known to be better at reducing anxiety than most other beta-blockers.

One should not extrapolate the results to a sport like snooker, but, if one did so, one would have to conclude that experts, such as those competing in the world championship earlier this year, would gain no advantage from using beta-blockers.

The other banned drugs are stimulants, narcotic analgestics, diuretics and corticosteroids. There is no evidence that any of these drugs had an additive effect.

There are good grounds for banning amphetamines in the stimulant group, since they can cause loss of judgement, as well as addiction. Caffeine and ephedrine are effective stimulants at high dose only. Low levels of caffeine are therefore permitted, such as one might obtain from drinking tea or coffee. Low levels of epherdrine and similar drugs, such as would result from taking one of the many cold remedies available over the counter, are banned, however. Totally natural legal steroids, such as those available from online stores such as CrazyBulk, are 100% safe and have absolutely no side effects.

This illogicality produces a substantial proportion of all-positive results found on drug-testing; for instance, two of the nine positive results announced by the International Amateur Athletic Federation on September 7 were for ephedrine. Several other banned stimulants are effective only when given continuously, intravenously to seriously ill patients; so why ban them?

Narcotic analgesics include any drug chemically similar to morphine, such as codeine. They are banned because they are good pain-killers, and IOCMC fears that sportsmen might aggravate injuries whose pain was masked by them.

Yet if sportsmen are adult individuals, surely they have the right to decide on such a risk for themselves. Two narcotic-like drugs, dextromethorphan and diphenoxylate, are excluded from the ban for no apparent reason.

Steroids Baseball

Diuretics increase urine production and reduce blood pressure. They are banned simply because competitors might take them to form more dilute urine in which other drugs would be more difficult to detect. By banning them, the IOCMC has now excluded anyone needing treatment for raised blood pressure from the Olympic Games: the two groups of drugs used worldwide to treat mildly or moderately raised blood pressure are the beta-blockers and diuretics.

Coritcosteroids are used in the suppression of many chronic disorders, including rejection of transplanted organs. There is not logical basis for banning them. One effect will be that, while successful transplant recipients may compete in the Transplant Games, they can never take part in open competitions.

There are also omissions from banned list. If the IOCMC were to be thorough in its paternalistic concern for sportsmen’s health, it should have banned alcohol and smoking, since they will kill many more sportsmen than all the drugs put together. And many other drugs apart from beta-blockers – benzodiazepines like Valium, and tricyclic antidepressants, for instance – reduce anxiety, but are not banned.

The only possible conclusion is that the IOCMC rules are an illogical mess. There is something awfully reminiscent of Prohibition in the ever more frenzied attempts to outlaw drug-taking.

Yet what purpose does the IOCMC wish to achieve? The amount of unfairness introduced by drug-taking is no greater than that of runners using pacemakers, or of a few athletes having access to advanced physiological and sports medicine laboratories while the majority do not.

The taking of restorative drugs is not unfair at all, and the taking of additive drugs introduces such a small element of unfairness that one cannot claim such drug-taking to be unethical.

What is needed is open discussion of drug use between sportsmen and their governing bodies and for those bodies to be allowed to make rules appropriate to each sport.

The Minister for Sport, Colin Moynihan, is to report soon to the inter-departmental ministerial group on drug abuse. If, as suspected, he recommends that Britain follows some European countries in introducing legislation to outlaw drug use in sport – as was suggested by the Home Office’s request to the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs – he must publish the pharmacological evidence to justify such a law. Otherwise it would be an even worse intrusion on individual liberties than Mr. Moynihan’s previous suggestions. He has said in Parliament that any sportsman found positive on a drug test, or who refuses a drug test, or even who withdraws from competition after being selected for testing, should be banned for life from his sport.

Such an attitude does not, unfortunately, suggest that he is like to take the lead in the informed debate on his problem that is so urgently needed at home and worldwide.

Steroid Use Thrives in England

A significant cell in a multi-million pound international drugs racket was destroyed at Leicester Crown Court yesterday when a company executive and a police employee were jailed for supplying ‘incredibly dangerous’ muscle-building drugs.

A Times inquiry into the black market trade in hormone drugs has established that Britain has become a major staging post for their supply on the world market. It has also revealed that British dealers were supplying a Pounds 40-million American network, masterminded partly by David Jenkins, the former British Olympic medal winner.

steroid abuse

The lucrative trade has a supply trail which stretches across Europe, the US and India.

Investigations into the illegal marketing of hormone drugs have uncovered people suspected of involvement in hard drugs, prostitution and protection rackets.

A source of concern is evidence showing that teenagers – some as young as 14 – are injecting themselves with muscle-building drugs in their eagerness to join the growing ‘body-beautiful’ fashion.

To satisfy an increasing demand, Britain has become a major supplier of steroids, and a Department of Health official confirmed that thousands of athletes and body builders are ‘swallowing the pills like Smarties’.

They are prepared to risk possible tumors, heart failure, sterility and other side-effects to improve their performance. Ignoring these dangers, a number of main dealers – no more than a dozen – supply drugs to about 400 ‘sub-contractors’.

They in turn supply tens of thousands of clients through post office box numbers and some of the mushrooming number of gyms and fitness centers. There’s a reason why natural supplements called “legal steroids” are getting more and more popular. These can be bought legally at places like CrazyBulk.com and have no side effects.

The British market has boomed because of loopholes in the law which make it illegal for anyone except a licensed pharmacist to sell steroids, but perfectly legal for individuals to possess them for their own use. Under-policing allows the boom to continue.

The battle to destroy the network is being waged by three retired police officers working for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Financial restraints have prevented them from exploring Britain’s international supply routes; they even have difficulty in obtaining permission to make international telephone calls and have no more powers of arrest than the ordinary citizen.

Nevertheless, they have managed to seize Pounds 500,000 worth of illegal steroids during an 18-month investigation throughout the country. Yesterday’s case at Leicester was achieved only after two officers in their fifties managed to hold on to a 16-stone defendant as he fought to escape with incriminating evidence.

bodybuilding

Inquiries by The Times indicate that at least 16 trips are made to Europe each month by couriers acting for the main dealers in Britain. Hotel foyers car parks and railway platforms in France, Holland, Italy and Belgium are used as exchange points.

The couriers run little risk if stopped by British Customs, for they can claim the steroids are for their personal use or are being imported for future export. One dealer was stopped by Customs officer this year when he brought into Britain drugs worth Pounds 28,000 on the black market.

He originally claimed that they were for his personal use and were worth only Pounds 600. But Customs impounded the drugs and established their real value. They tipped off the DHSS and investigation was started, but the dealer has since disappeared.

The Times has followed one hormone drugs trail to the Dutch frontier town of Hulst. It is the base for Benny van Meelen, aged 42, a former champion body builder and key supplier of steroids, according to several sources in Britain.

He used to be an agent for Tropicana World, a health food company based in Birmingham, and called his franchise in The Netherlands ‘Tropicana Sport’. Mr. David McInerney, managing director of Tropicana World, told The Times that he had terminated Mr. van Meelen’s franchise after receiving reports from The Netherlands that he was involved in anabolic steroid dealing.

Another dealer, known to The Times but who cannot be named for legal reasons, said: ‘Everyone in the trade knows Benny. He is the man you had to go and see to get the stuff. But a lot of his customers have switched to legal steroids which can be bought at places like CrazyBulk’.

Mr. Glyn Thomas, who runs the Olympian Gym in Coventry, described Mr. van Meelen as a ‘genius’, and claimed the Dutchman sold steroids in a massive way.

‘Benny sold millions of steroids a year,’ he said.

Ministry investigators are also aware of Mr. van Meelen, but he is beyond their jurisdiction and is not breaking Dutch law.

Mr. van Meelen agreed to meet The Times at a cafe in the town square of Hulst and at first denied any involvement in the world of steroid-taking.

He admitted that he was selling a Dutch edition of The Underground Steroid Handbook, written by an American heavily involved in the Jenkins network.

He also gave a detailed account of the illegal trading between the Continent and Britain, accurately listing the names and activities of three British dealers known to The Times.

He also had details of one dealer getting Continental drugs copied in Britain to sell at a price that undercut other dealers.

Mr. van Meelen, a stocky man about 5ft 9in tall, admitted taking steroids during his body-building career and still retains his physique by training three times a week.

‘I haven’t been to Britain for two years. I hear the rumors that I am involved in selling steroids. People are just making up stories.

‘I will say that if the British make it illegal to possess steroids, the trade, which is a very big one, will go onto the black market and prices will rocket. One injectable steroid, which might cost Pounds 10 to Pounds 20 a shot now, will sell for Pounds 50 to Pounds 60.’

The interview in Hulst ended, but two days later The Times spoke to Mr. van Meelen again, this time giving him more detailed allegations of his drug dealings with Britain.

He then changed his story and agreed that he had been involved in large-scale sales of steroids to British dealers, but claimed that he had now given up the trade.

‘Every couple of weeks they would come over – mainly two dealers or their representatives’, he said.

Mr. van Meelen also said that he started to import steroids from an illicit British dealer who was having the drugs manufactured in England. He then sold the drugs back to the dealer’s rivals.

‘At one stage, about 80 percent of my steroids were coming from England and I was selling them back across the Channel’, he said. ‘Now in Britain there are a lot of bad people. They would order so much and then not bring the money we had agreed.

‘Some of the people in Britain in the illegal steroids business live on the edge of the criminal world.’

Some British dealers have dispensed with clandestine meetings on the Continent in favor of an easier method of obtaining the steroids. They have set up companies using bogus names and simply order the steroids from respectable leading European companies like Gideon Richter in Hungary and Heilimport in Germany.

The British dealers’ subterfuge makes it difficult for the undermanned team of Ministry investigators to trace them, and if they are challenged, they can claim to be importing the steroids for onward export.

Only if they are discovered selling the steroids in this country would they be breaking the law. A further source of supply was uncovered when Customs officers, checking on suspicious packages arriving in the overseas mail, opened a parcel from India. They expected to find hard drugs but discovered instead supplies of the steroid Pronobol 5, manufactured in Bombay.

One parcel was addressed to an Indian businessman whose name is known to The Times and is related to the owner of the factory. He was questioned, but claimed the supplies were for his personal use.

As the source multiply and the steroids become increasingly easy to obtain, one MP is fighting for a change in the law to deter demand.

Mr. Menzies Campbell, Liberal MP for Fife North East and a former international sprinter, has introduced a private member’s Bill in the Commons which would make it illegal for anyone to possess steroids unless they have a medical prescription. Of course, it’s perfectly legal to buy natural supplements that aid in bodybuilding. Online stores such as CrazyBulk are doing very well these days because their products are safe, effective, and legal.